Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
Unit II: World of Living
Reproduction: Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heridity and evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Unit III: Natural Phenomenon
Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens; Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Unit IV: Effects of Current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits
Unit V: Natural Resources
Conservation of natural resources
Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of People’s participation for conservation of natural resources.
The Regional environment: Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.